Research

Research papers

Here are some research papers we recommend relating to: rates of porn exposure and usage; the impacts of porn on attitudes, beliefs and behaviours; the impacts of porn on mental health; and porn as a sexual and reproductive health educator.

Porn content, exposure and usage

Office of Film and Literature Classification. (2018). NZ Youth and Porn: Research findings of a survey on how and why young New Zealanders view online pornography. Wellington, NZ: Office of Film and Literature Classification.

Office of Film and Literature Classification. (2019). Breaking Down Porn. https://www.classificationoffice.govt.nz/resources/research/breaking-down-porn/

Office of Film and Literature Classification. (2020). Growing Up With Porn. https://www.classificationoffice.govt.nz/media/documents/Growing_up_with_porn.pdf

Donevan, M., & Mattebo, M. (2017). The relationship between frequent pornography consumption, behaviours, and sexual preoccupancy among male adolescents in Sweden. Sexual & reproductive healthcare: official journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives12, 82-87.

Fritz, N., Malic, V., Paul, B., & Zhou, Y. (2020). A descriptive analysis of the types, targets, and relative frequency of aggression in mainstream pornography. Archives of Sexual Behavior49(8), 3041-3053.

Parker I, Institute for Public Policy Research (2014). Young people, sex and relationships: The new norms. Institute for Public Policy Research. https://www.ippr.org/files/publications/pdf/young-people-sex-relationships_Aug2014.pdf

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: A new era of sexuality. International journal of adolescent medicine and health28(2), 169-173.

Martellozzo, E., Monaghan, A., Adler, J. R., Davidson, J., Leyva, R., & Horvath, M. A. (2016). ” I wasn’t sure it was normal to watch it…” A quantitative and qualitative examination of the impact of online pornography on the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of children and young people.

Vera-Gray, F., McGlynn, C., Kureshi, I., & Butterby, K. (2021). Sexual violence as a sexual script in mainstream online pornography. The British Journal of Criminology20, 1-18.

Porn and Racism

Fritz, N., Malic, V., Paul, B., & Zhou, Y. (2021). Worse than objects: The depiction of black women and men and their sexual relationship in pornography. Gender Issues, 38(1), 100-120.

Horvath, M. A., Alys, L., Massey, K., Pina, A., Scally, M., & Adler, J. R. (2013). Basically… porn is everywhere: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people.

Klaassen, M. J., & Peter, J. (2015). Gender (in) equality in internet pornography: A content analysis of popular pornographic internet videos. The Journal of Sex Research52(7), 721-735.

Shor, E., & Seida, K. (2019). “Harder and harder”? Is mainstream pornography becoming increasingly violent and do viewers prefer violent content?. The Journal of Sex Research56(1), 16-28.

Shor, E., & Golriz, G. (2019). Gender, race, and aggression in mainstream pornography. Archives of Sexual Behavior48(3), 739-751.

Miller, D. J., McBain, K. A., & Raggatt, P. T. (2019). An experimental investigation into pornography’s effect on men’s perceptions of the likelihood of women engaging in porn-like sex. Psychology of Popular Media Culture8(4), 365.

Parker I, Institute for Public Policy Research (2014). Young people, sex and relationships: The new norms. Institute for Public Policy Research. https://www.ippr.org/files/publications/pdf/young-people-sex-relationships_Aug2014.pdf

Wright, P. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2016). Men’s objectifying media consumption, objectification of women, and attitudes supportive of violence against women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4), 955-964.

Porn and Sexual/Gender Attitudes, Expectations and Beliefs

British Journal of Criminology. (2021). Sexual violence as a sexual script in mainstream online pornography. (Report No. 61, Issue 5). https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azab035

Fritz, N., Malic, V., Paul, B., & Zhou, Y. (2021). Worse than objects: The depiction of black women and men and their sexual relationship in pornography. Gender Issues, 38(1), 100-120.

Government Equalities Office. (2020). The relationship between pornography use and harmful sexual attitudes and behaviours. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/976730/The_Relationship_between_Pornography_use_and_Harmful_Sexual_Attitudes_and_Behaviours-_literature_review_v1.pdf

Horvath, M. A., Alys, L., Massey, K., Pina, A., Scally, M., & Adler, J. R. (2013). Basically… porn is everywhere: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people.

Klaassen, M. J., & Peter, J. (2015). Gender (in) equality in internet pornography: A content analysis of popular pornographic internet videos. The Journal of Sex Research52(7), 721-735.

Miller, D. J., McBain, K. A., & Raggatt, P. T. (2019). An experimental investigation into pornography’s effect on men’s perceptions of the likelihood of women engaging in porn-like sex. Psychology of Popular Media Culture8(4), 365.

Parker I, Institute for Public Policy Research (2014). Young people, sex and relationships: The new norms. Institute for Public Policy Research. https://www.ippr.org/files/publications/pdf/young-people-sex-relationships_Aug2014.pdf

Wright, P. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2016). Men’s objectifying media consumption, objectification of women, and attitudes supportive of violence against women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4), 955-964.

The Behavioural Architects (Joanne Upton, Alya Hazell, Rachel Abbott and Kate Pilling). (2020). The relationship between pornography use and harmful sexual attitudes and behaviours A literature review. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/

Smith, L. W., Liu, B., Degenhardt, L., Richters, J., Patton, G., Wand, H., … & Guy, R. (2016). Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexual Health13(6), 501-515.

Quadara, A., El-Murr, A. & Latham, J. (2017). The effects of pornography on children and young people: An evidence scan. (Research Report). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

 

Porn and sexual aggression

Bridges, A. J., Wosnitzer, R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (2010). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography videos: A content analysis update. Violence against women16(10), 1065-1085.

British Journal of Criminology. (2021). Sexual violence as a sexual script in mainstream online pornography. (Report No. 61, Issue 5). https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azab035

Donevan, M., & Mattebo, M. (2017). The relationship between frequent pornography consumption, behaviours, and sexual preoccupancy among male adolescents in Sweden. Sexual & reproductive healthcare: official journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives12, 82-87.

Foubert, J. D. (2017). The public health harms of pornography: The brain, erectile dysfunction, and sexual violence. Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence2(3), 6.

Fritz, N., Malic, V., Paul, B., & Zhou, Y. (2020). A descriptive analysis of the types, targets, and relative frequency of aggression in mainstream pornography. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(8), 3041-3053.

Government Equalities Office. (2020). The relationship between pornography use and harmful sexual attitudes and behaviours. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/976730/The_Relationship_between_Pornography_use_and_Harmful_Sexual_Attitudes_and_Behaviours-_literature_review_v1.pdf

Lim, M. S., Carrotte, E. R., & Hellard, M. E. (2016). The impact of pornography on gender-based violence, sexual health and well-being: what do we know?. J Epidemiol Community Health70(1), 3-5.

Quadara, A., El-Murr, A. & Latham, J. (2017). The effects of pornography on children and young people: An evidence scan. (Research Report). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Shor, E., & Golriz, G. (2019). Gender, race, and aggression in mainstream pornography. Archives of Sexual Behavior48(3), 739-751.

Smith, L. W., Liu, B., Degenhardt, L., Richters, J., Patton, G., Wand, H., … & Guy, R. (2016). Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexual Health13(6), 501-515.

The Behavioural Architects (Joanne Upton, Alya Hazell, Rachel Abbott and Kate Pilling). (2020). The relationship between pornography use and harmful sexual attitudes and behaviours A literature review. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/

Vera-Gray, F., McGlynn, C., Kureshi, I., & Butterby, K. (2021). Sexual violence as a sexual script in mainstream online pornography. The British Journal of Criminology, 61(5), 1243-1260.

Wright, P. J., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2016). A meta-analysis of pornography consumption and actual acts of sexual aggression in general population studies. Journal of Communication66(1), 183-205.

Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Hamburger, M., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2011). X-rated material and perpetration of sexually aggressive behavior among children and adolescents: Is there a link?. Aggressive behavior37(1), 1-18.

Ybarra, M. L., & Thompson, R. E. (2018). Predicting the emergence of sexual violence in adolescence. Prevention Science, 19(4), 403-415.

PORN, SEXUAL HEALTH and PROBLEMATIC PORN USAGE

Bőthe, B., Tóth-Király, I., Zsila, Á., Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., & Orosz, G. (2018). The development of the problematic pornography consumption scale (PPCS). The Journal of Sex Research55(3), 395-406.

Chen, L., & Jiang, X. (2020). The assessment of problematic internet pornography use: A comparison of three scales with mixed methods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(2), 488.

De Alarcón, R., de la Iglesia, J. I., Casado, N. M., & Montejo, A. L. (2019). Online porn addiction: What we know and what we don’t—A systematic review. Journal of clinical medicine8(1), 91.

Doornwaard SM, van Den Eijnden RJ, Baams L, Vanwesenbeeck I, Ter Bogt TF. (2016). Lower psychological well-being and excessive sexual interest predict symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit internet material among adolescent boys. Journal of youth and adolescence. 1;45(1):73-84.

Grubbs, J. B., Kraus, S. W., & Perry, S. L. (2019). Self-reported addiction to pornography in a nationally representative sample: The roles of use habits, religiousness, and moral incongruence. Journal of Behavioral Addictions8(1), 88-93.

Park, B. Y., Wilson, G., Berger, J., Christman, M., Reina, B., Bishop, F., … & Doan, A. P. (2016). Is internet pornography causing sexual dysfunctions? A review with clinical reports. Behavioural Sciences6(3), 17.

Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: A new era of sexuality. International journal of adolescent medicine and health, 28(2), 169-173.

Séguin, L. J., Rodrigue, C., & Lavigne, J. (2018). Consuming ecstasy: Representations of male and female orgasm in mainstream pornography. Journal of Sex Research,55(3), 348–356.

Simonis, M., Manocha, R., & Ong, J. J. (2016). Female genital cosmetic surgery: a cross-sectional survey exploring knowledge, attitude and practice of general practitioners. BMJ open6(9), e013010.

Wright, P. J., Bridges, A. J., Sun, C., Ezzell, M. B., & Johnson, J. A. (2018). Personal pornography viewing and sexual satisfaction: A quadratic analysis. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy44(3), 308-315.

PORN and DIVERSE SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS (Choking & Rough sex)

Herbenick, D., Fu, T. C., Wright, P., Paul, B., Gradus, R., Bauer, J., & Jones, R. (2020). Diverse sexual behaviors and pornography use: Findings from a nationally representative probability survey of Americans aged 18 to 60 years. The journal of sexual medicine17(4), 623-633.

Herbenick, D., Fu, T. C., Patterson, C., Rosenstock Gonzalez, Y. R., Luetke, M., Svetina Valdivia, D., … & Rosenberg, M. (2021). Prevalence and characteristics of choking/strangulation during sex: Findings from a probability survey of undergraduate students. Journal of American college health, 1-15.

Herbenick, D., Fu, T. C., Kawata, K., Eastman-Mueller, H., Guerra-Reyes, L., Rosenberg, M., & Valdivia, D. S. (2021). Non-fatal strangulation/choking during sex and its associations with mental health: findings from an undergraduate probability survey. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1-13.

Herbenick, D., Fu, T. C., Valdivia, D. S., Patterson, C., Gonzalez, Y. R., Guerra-Reyes, L., … & Rosenberg, M. (2021). What is rough sex, who does it, and who likes it? Findings from a probability sample of US undergraduate students. Archives of sexual behavior50(3), 1183-1195.

Porn and mental health

Bőthe, B., Tóth-Király, I., Zsila, Á., Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., & Orosz, G. (2018). The development of the problematic pornography consumption scale (PPCS). The Journal of Sex Research55(3), 395-406.

Doornwaard SM, van Den Eijnden RJ, Baams L, Vanwesenbeeck I, Ter Bogt TF. (2016). Lower psychological well-being and excessive sexual interest predict symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit internet material among adolescent boys. Journal of youth and adolescence. 1;45(1):73-84.

Laier, C., Pawlikowski, M., Pekal, J., Schulte, F. P., & Brand, M. (2013). Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(2), 100-107.

Laier, C., Pekal, J., & Brand, M. (2014). Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of Internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(8), 505-511.

Negash, S., Sheppard, N. V. N., Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2016). Trading later rewards for current pleasure: Pornography consumption and delay discounting. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(6), 689-700.

Office of Film and Literature Classification. (2018). NZ Youth and Porn: Research findings of a survey on how and why young New Zealanders view online pornography. Wellington, NZ: Office of Film and Literature Classification. https://www.classificationoffice.govt.nz/news/latest-news/nzyouthandporn/

Owens EW, Behun RJ, Manning JC, Reid RC. The impact of Internet pornography on adolescents: A review of the research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. 2012 Jan 1;19(1-2):99-122.

Pornography as a sexual health educator

Hooley EM. The Relationship Between Transmission of Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Attitude, and Culture. Andrews University; 2018.

We also recommend

The Australian e-childhood statement of research relating to the potential harms of online pornography to children
https://www.echildhood.org/statement

The Australian Institute of Family Studies robust research review on the potential effects of online pornography on children and young people and the messages pornography generates about gender, equality and sexuality.
https://aifs.gov.au/publications/effects-pornography-children-and-young-people-snapshot

Rothman, E. F., Adhia, A., Christensen, T. T., Paruk, J., Alder, J., & Daley, N. (2018). A pornography literacy class for youth: Results of a feasibility and efficacy pilot study. American Journal of Sexuality Education13(1), 1-17.